Sites & cities that bear the name of 'Ain Ghazal

'Ain Ghazal

Today in : Jordan
First trace of activity : ca. 8,400 B.C.E
Last trace of activity : ca. 5,000 B.C.E
Recorded names : ʿayn ġazāl, Ayn Ghazal, 'Ain Ghazal, عين غزال

Description : Ayn Ghazal ('Ain Ghazal, ʿayn ġazāl عين غزال ) is a Neolithic archaeological site located in metropolitan Amman, Jordan, about 2 km north-west of Amman Civil Airport. The settlement at 'Ain Ghazal ("Spring of the Gazelle") first appeared in the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (MPPNB ) and is split into two phases. Phase I starts circa 10,300 BP and ends c. 9,950 BP, while phase II ends c. 9,550 BP. The 9th millennium MPPNB period in the Levant represented a major transformation in prehistoric lifeways from small bands of mobile hunter–gatherers to large settled farming and herding villages in the Mediterranean zone, the process having been initiated some 2–3 millennia earlier. In its prime era circa 7000 BC, the site extended over 10–15 hectares (25–37 ac) and was inhabited by ca. 3000 people (four to five times the population of contemporary Jericho). After 6500 BC, however, the population dropped sharply to about one sixth within only a few generations, probably due to environmental degradation, the 8.2 kilo-year event (Köhler-Rollefson 1992).

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