Sites & cities that bear the name of Albano Laziale

Albano Laziale

Today in : Italy
First trace of activity : ca. 10th century B.C.E
Last trace of activity : today
Recorded names : Albanum, Castra Albana, Arbano

Description : Albano Laziale (Latin: Albanum, Romanesco: Arbano) is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in Latium, central Italy. Rome is 25 kilometres (16 mi) distant. It is bounded by other communes of Castel Gandolfo, Rocca di Papa, Ariccia and Ardea. Located in the Castelli Romani area of Lazio. It is sometimes known simply as Albano. Albano is one of the most important municipalities of the Castelli Romani, and a busy commercial centre. It has been also a suburbicarian bishopric since the 5th century, a historic principality of the Savelli family, and from 1699 to 1798 the inalienable possession of the Holy See. It now houses, among other things, the Praetor of the district court of Velletri. The territory of Albano is partially included in the Parco Regionale dei Castelli Romani. The first recorded evidence of human settlement in the town of Albano Laziale dates from the beginning of the first millennium BC with the remains of settlements of Tor Paluzzi, Castel Savelli and Colle dei Cappuccini. The human presence in these locations, is maintained even in later times, while from Laziale IIB period (830 BCE – 730 BCE) start to appear due to traces of the mythical foundation Latin capital of Alba Longa. Most modern historians seems inclined to place the site of Alba Longa in between the towns of Marino, Rocca di Papa and Ariccia on the eastern side of Lake Albano, which is opposite to the present city of Albano. Albano is located in the area in which, according to the legend, Aeneas's son, Ascanius, founded Alba Longa. Today the coat of arms of Albano still sports the white (Latin: Alba) boar dreamed of by Ascanius before the founding of the city. Alba Longa was one of the main cities of the Latins and, again according to the legend, the birthplace of Romulus and Remus, the mythical founders of Rome. Albanense in the territory, were then subjected to a large extent the wealthy of Aricia, which built several suburban villas built by the leading exponents of the Roman nobility. Pompey had a villa, the Albanum Pompeii, whose ruins have been found inside of the Villa Doria Pamphili. A villa belonging to the Seneca would be identified within the ruins found on the south ridge of Lake Albano, bordering the town of Ariccia. All of these residences, at the time of Emperor Domitian were combined into a single fund owned by the Emperor's Albanum Cesaris, within which erected a monumental imperial residence, with the ruins mostly contained in the Villa Barberini at Castel Gandolfo. The Emperor Septimius Severus around 202 had installed in place of the old town of the Legio II Parthica. Thus were born the Castra Albana, which were huge camps that remained in operation until the end of 3rd century. Albano developed from this settlement, as is shown by the main streets, which still follow the ancient decumanus and cardo. Remains of the large baths built by Septimius' son, Caracalla, are still visible. Middle Ages and early Modern era (476–1699) In 326, Emperor Constantine I, according to an established tradition, ordered the founding of the Albanense cathedral dedicated to St. John the Baptist. According to sources, Constantine donated to the newly formed cathedral, various sacred vessels and several estates and funds in Ager Albanus. During the Gothic War, Albano was reduced from municipium to oppidulum, a small fortified city. In 964, Emperor Otto I conferred the investiture at Albano to Virginio Savelli, his captain in Rome. Pope Paschal II in 1118 took refuge in Albano as a hostile insurgency occupied Rome, and found that Albanensi loyalty be granted perpetual exemption from taxes of milling wheat. During the schism of anti-pope Anacletus with Pope Innocent II in 1137 the anti-pope marched on Lazio Albano and other locations to extend its domain, but these territories were taken over by Innocent II. In the Year 1142, Albano was sacked by the Saracens. After the Battle of Monte Porzio, in 1168, the Roman people thought it well to take revenge on Albano, who had sided with the city 's Emperor Frederick Barbarossa against Rome, and so the town was looted and razed. Given the state of abandonment, Pope Innocent III gave the monastery of St. Paul Outside the Walls the Palatium with the churches of Santa Maria Minor and St. Nicholas and their dependencies. In 1436 it was razed along with Castel Savelli by Cardinal Giovanni Maria Vitelleschi, by order of Pope Eugenius IV. In 1697 Albano switched to direct control of the Holy See.

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