Sites & cities that bear the name of Eshnunna


Today in : Iraq
First trace of activity : ca. 30th century B.C.E
Last trace of activity : ca. 18th century B.C.E
Recorded names : Tupliaš, Ašnunnak, Tell Asmar, Ischnun

Description : Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Governorate, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia. Although situated in the Diyala Valley north-west of Sumer proper, the city nonetheless belonged securely within the Sumerian cultural milieu. The tutelary deity of the city was Tishpak (Tišpak). Occupied since the Jemdet Nasr period around 3000 BCE, Eshnunna was a major city during the Early Dynastic period of Mesopotamia, beginning with the rise of the Akkadian Empire. The first king of the city was a governor under the Akkadian Empire named Ituria. Ituria built a palace and a temple dedicated to Shu-Sin. The next king was Shu-ija, who declared independence from Akkad in 2026 BCE. Shu-ija's successors used the title of governor, not king, as the title of king of the city belonged to Tishpak, the city's god. In 2010 BCE, King Nurahum I of Eshnunna and the city of Isin won a battle against the city of Subartu. The following kings, named Kirikiri and Bilalamaboth, had Elamite names, suggesting that Eshnunna retained good relationships with the Elamites, although it seems unlikely they were conquered by them. The city was later sacked, possibly by Anum-Muttabbil of Der. As such, little is known about its next kings. By 1870 BCE, Eshnunna was revived. This could have occurred due to the decline of the cities of Isin and Larsa. During the years in between 1862 and 1818 BCE, King Ipiqadad II conquered the cities of Nerebtum and Dur-Rimush. From 1830-1815 BCE, king Naramsin expanded Eshnunna's territory to Babylon, Ekallatum, and Ashur. In 1780 BCE the kingdom of Assyria, led by Shamshi-Adad I, attacked Eshnunna and reconquered the cities of Nerebtum and Shaduppum. These cities were later conquered by Eshnunna in 1776 BCE following Shamshi-Adad's death. In 1764 BCE, King Silli-Sin formed a coalition with Mari to attack Babylon, but this failed. Following Eshnunna's capture by Babylon in 1762 BCE, the city suffered a great flood. During 1741-1736 BCE Eshnunna's governor Anni sided with a king of Larsa in a rebellion against Babylon. Anni was captured and executed by the Babylonians, and the city itself was destroyed by Hammurabi. Because of its promise of control over lucrative trade routes, Eshnunna could function somewhat as a gateway between Mesopotamian and Elamite culture. The trade routes gave it access to many exotic, sought-after goods such as horses from the north, copper, tin, and other metals and precious stones. In a grave in Eshnunna, a pendant made of copal from Zanzibar was found. A small number of seals and beads from the Indus Valley Civilization were also found.

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