Sites & cities that bear the name of Hanlin


Today in : Myanmar
First trace of activity : ca. 2nd century B.C.E
Last trace of activity : ca. 9th century C.E
Recorded names : ဟန်လင်း, Halingyi, Halin, Halim

Description : Hanlin (also known as Halingyi, Halin and Halim) is a village near Shwebo in the Sagaing Division of Myanmar. In the era of the Pyu city-states it was a city of considerable significance, possibly a local capital replacing Sri Ksetra. Today the modest village is noted for its hot springs and archaeological sites. Hanlin, Beikthano, and Sri Ksetra, the ancient cities of the Pyu Kingdom were built on the irrigated fields of the dry zone of the Ayeyawady River basin. They were inscribed by UNESCO on its List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia in May 2014 for their archaeological heritage traced back more than 1,000 years to between 200 BC and 900 AD. Hanlin's history is linked to the history of the Pyu people who lived between the 2nd century BC to the 9th century AD in the kingdoms that existed at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Kshetra, and Halingyi. They spoke the Tibeto-Burman languages. Trade was conducted with China and India. The Pyu's authority extended to eighteen kingdoms, most of them in the southern region of Myanmar. They were refined in their behavior, dress habits, culture, art, and were Buddhists of the Sarvastivada school. The architectural styles which evolved from the 11th to 14th centuries are evident in the Pagan area. Initially their capital city was Sri Kshetra, at the northern edge of the Irrawaddy River delta. In the 7th century they moved their capital to Halingyi which is in a dry zone. For trade purposes with foreign countries they still operated from Sri Kshetra. Their southern neighbours were the Mon people who were followers of Theravada Buddhism. Archaeological findings indicate that habitation existed in this area since the Bronze Age, and that Hanlin was established by the Pyu people only during the 1st or 2nd century BC. Archaeologists have opined that Hanlin was the largest Pyu city until the 9th century AD. Subsequently, Sri Ksetra near Pyay became a more prominent city. However, over the years Pae culture was overshadowed by the Bagan culture.

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