Sites & cities that bear the name of Jebel Buhais

Jebel Buhais

Today in : United Arab Emirates
First trace of activity : ca. 5,000 B.C.E
Last trace of activity : ca. 4th century B.C.E
Recorded names : جَبَل ٱلْبُحَيْص, Jabal Buḥayṣ, جَبَل بُحَيْص, Jabal Al-Buḥayṣ

Description : Jebel Buhais (also called Jebel Al-Buhais) is a geological feature, an extensive rocky outcrop, as well as an archaeological site located near Madam, in Sharjah, UAE. The area contains an extensive necropolis, consisting of burial sites spanning the Stone, Bronze, Iron and Hellenistic ages of human settlement in the UAE. Burials at Jebel Buhais (Jebel is Arabic for mountain) date back to the 5th Millennium BCE. The site is located to the side of a limestone outcrop rising to some 340 metres above sea level and which runs almost contiguously from the town of Madam north to the town of Mleiha, itself an important archaeological site. Jebel Buhais is the oldest radiometrically dated inland burial site in the UAE. The area is protected, having been defined as a nature reserve. Dated to the late Stone Age, Neolithic finds at BHS 18 have been carbon-dated spanning some 1,000 years from 5,000 to 4,000 BCE, with burials at the site thought to be those of nomadic herders who travelled inland for the winter season. Jebel Buhais is unique as an inland neolithic site in the UAE, all other sites discovered to date have been coastal, and the site has yielded no evidence of burials in the following millennium. This is thought to be consistent with changing patterns of human life as a result of climate change: a spring discovered at Jebel Buhais dried up at this stage, an event contemporaneous with similar discoveries pointing to increased aridity in the interior of Oman. Throughout Southern Arabia, evidence of human inland settlement in the 3rd millennium BCE is scant. Post-Neolithic era Subsequent burials at Jebel Buhais represent the early Bronze Age Hafit period (3200 - 2600 BCE), with many distinctive 'beehive' Hafit graves discovered. None, however, were found with human remains of that era. The subsequent era of human occupation, Umm Al Nar (2600-2000 BCE) is not represented at Jebel Buhais although there were Umm Al Nar period burials in nearby Mleiha. Iron Age burials, particularly the group of graves defined as BHS 85, are thought to be linked to the nearby Iron Age settlement site of Al Thuqeibah. Wadi Suq graves at Jebel Buhais include those found at BHS 8. A number of later burials, including some invasive later burials in older grave sites, are also evident at the site.

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