Sites & cities that bear the name of Kainua


Today in : Italy
First trace of activity : ca. 6th century B.C.E
Last trace of activity : ca. 3rd century B.C.E
Recorded names : Misano, Misa, Marzabotto

Description : Kainua ( Kàinua ) is an ancient Etruscan city that stood on the Pian di Misano and on the overhanging hill of Misanello at the current municipality of Marzabotto , in the metropolitan city of Bologna , known until a few years ago with the name of Misa (from the name of the place of discovery) . Founded in the 5th century BC ( Marzabotto II ) not far from the Reno river , Kainua was one of the most important city-states of the Po Etruria , together with Felsina (Bologna) and Spina , as well as an important commercial hub between Tyrrhenian Etruria and the Po Valley , up to beyond the Alps . The existence of the city has been known since 1551 , when friar Leandro Alberti in his Descrittione di tutto Italia hypothesizes the presence of an ancient city on the basis of the discovery of some ruins of buildings,mosaics and coins . According to the findings that came to light following the excavations, the foundation of the city took place in two phases: Marzabotto I ( 550 - 500 BC ): in this first phase the Etruscan settlement was simply made up of villages of primitive huts arranged all over the plateau. Here the Etruscans already lived well organized: in addition to the houses and land used for agriculture, the settlement could boast of temples or altars for worship (north-east of the village, near a source of water), a necropolis, a water channeling system, a foundry and at least one craft shop. A particularly important find attesting the dating to this period was found at the bottom of the well on plateia D : a pyx lidin very elaborate and precious ivory (nicknamed the lord of the lions ), in orientalizing style, datable between 620 and 580 BC and probably belonged to a noble of high rank. Marzabotto II ( 500 - 350 BC ): the foundation of the city proper according to the Etruscan ritu dates back to this period , that is, built reflecting the subdivision of the celestial templum . The city thus constituted included house-shops of the atrium tuscanicum type , an acropolis, several sanctuaries and places of worship, at least two necropolises, aqueducts, sewage systems and a large furnace, in addition to the pre-existing foundry. Celtic invasion Towards the first half of the fourth century BC the Celtic populations , already present for some time in northern Italy , more precisely to the north of the Po , invaded the Etruria of the Po Valley. The Gauls Boi began to occupy the Etruscan cities, one after the other, and then descended towards southern Italy until they reached Rome , which they sacked. They used to modify the function of the occupied territories according to the geographical position: the territories in the plains were transformed into lands to be cultivated, while those in the highlands into military garrisons. Kainua, due to its elevated position, became a garrison from which to control the entire Rhine Valley.

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