Sites & cities that bear the name of Kashgar


Today in : China
First trace of activity : ca. 2nd century B.C.E
Last trace of activity : today
Recorded names : Kasi, 喀什噶尔, Kāshígá'ěr, يېڭىشەھەر, قەشقەر, Qeşqer, Kashi, 喀什, Kachgar, Cascar, Cashgar, Kashagiri, Srikrirati, Shule, 疏勒, Śu-lig, K̂äxk̂är, Kaxgar, Jangi-schahr, K’o-shih-ka-erh, K’o-shih-ka-erh-hsin-ch’eng, Ko-shih-ka-erh-hui-ch’eng, K’o-shih-ko-erh-hsin-ch’eng, New Kashgar, Sheleh, Shuleh, Shulen, Shu-lo, Su-lo, Su-lo-chen, Su-lo-hsien, Yangi-shaar, Yangi-shahr, Yangishar, Yéngisheher, Yengixəh̨ər, Еңишәһәр

Description : Kashgar (Uighur: قەشقەر) or Kashi (Chinese: 喀什), is an oasis city in the Tarim Basin region of Southern Xinjiang. It is one of the westernmost cities of China, near the border with Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Pakistan. With a population of over 500,000, Kashgar has served as a trading post and strategically important city on the Silk Road between China, the Middle East and Europe for over 2,000 years, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. At the convergence point of widely varying cultures and empires, Kashgar has been under the rule of the Chinese, Turkic, Mongol and Tibetan empires. The city has also been the site of a number of battles between various groups of people on the steppes. The earliest mention of Kashgar occurs when a Chinese Han dynasty envoy traveled the Northern Silk Road to explore lands to the west. Another early mention of Kashgar is during the Former Han (also known as the Western Han dynasty), when in 76 BCE the Chinese conquered the Xiongnu, Yutian (Khotan), Sulei (Kashgar) and a group of states in the Tarim Basin almost up to the foot of the Tian Shan range. Ptolemy speaks of Scythia beyond the Imaus, which is in a “Kasia Regio”, probably exhibiting the name from which Kashgar and Kashgaria (often applied to the district) are formed. The country's people practised Zoroastrianism and Buddhism before the coming of Islam. In the Book of Han, which covers the period between 125 BCE and 23 CE, it is recorded that there were 1,510 households, 18,647 people and 2,000 persons able to bear arms. By the time covered by the Book of the Later Han (roughly 25 to 170 CE), it had grown to 21,000 households and had 3,000 men able to bear arms. The Book of the Later Han provides a wealth of detail on developments in the region: In the period of Emperor Wu , the Western Regions1 were under the control of the Interior . They numbered thirty-six kingdoms. The Imperial Government established a Colonel Envoys there to direct and protect these countries. Emperor Xuan changed this title to Protector-General. Emperor Yuan installed two Wuji Colonels to take charge of the agricultural garrisons on the frontiers of the king of Nearer Jushi . During the time of Emperor Ai and Emperor Ping , the principalities of the Western Regions split up and formed fifty-five kingdoms. Wang Mang, after he usurped the Throne , demoted and changed their kings and marquises. Following this, the Western Regions became resentful and rebelled. They, therefore, broke off all relations with the Interior and, all together, submitted to the Xiongnu again. The Xiongnu collected oppressively heavy taxes and the kingdoms were not able to support their demands. In the middle of the Jianwu period , they each , sent envoys to ask if they could submit to the Interior and to express their desire for a Protector-General. Emperor Guangwu, decided that because the Empire was not yet settled , he had no time for outside affairs and finally refused his consent . In the meantime, the Xiongnu became weaker. The king of Suoju , named Xian, wiped out several kingdoms. After Xian’s death , they began to attack and fight each other. Xiao Yuan , Jingjue , Ronglu and Qiemo were annexed by Shanshan . Qule and Pishan were conquered and fully occupied by Yutian . Yuli , Danhuan, Guhu and Wutanzili were destroyed by Jushi ; said kingdoms were subsequently reestablished in later years. During the Yongping period , the Northern Xiongnu forced several countries to help them plunder the commanderies and districts of Hexi. The gates of the towns stayed shut in broad daylight.":3 More particularly, in reference to Kashgar itself, is the following record: In the sixteenth Yongping year of Emperor Ming 73, Jian, the king of Qiuci (Kucha), attacked and killed Cheng, the king of Shule (Kashgar). Then he appointed the Qiuci (Kucha) Marquis of the Left, Douti, King of Shule (Kashgar). In winter 73 CE, the Han sent the Major Ban Chao who captured and bound Douti. He appointed Zhong, the son of the elder brother of Cheng, to be king of Shule (Kashgar). Zhong later rebelled. (Ban) Chao attacked and beheaded him.:43

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