Sites & cities that bear the name of Ratiaria


Today in : Bulgaria
First trace of activity : ca. 4th century B.C.E
Last trace of activity : ca. 6th century C.E
Recorded names : Colonia Ulpia Traiana Ratiaria, Ραζαρία μητρόπολις, Raetiaria, Retiaria, Reciaria, Razaria, Рациария, Anastasiana Ratiaria

Description : Ratiaria (or: Raetiaria, Retiaria, Reciaria, Razaria; Bulgarian: Рациария; Greek: Ραζαρία μητρόπολις;) was a city founded by the Moesians, a Daco-Thracian tribe, in the 4th century BC, along the river Danube. In Roman times it was named Colonia Ulpia Traiana Ratiaria. It is located 2 km west of the present village of Archar in Vidin Province, northwestern Bulgaria. The closest modern cities are Vidin (27 km. to the north west) and Lom (28 km. to the east). An archaeological museum for the site has recently been established in Dimovo. Ratiaria was conquered by the Dacians of Burebista and later by the Romans. There was a gold mine in the city, which was exploited by the Thracians. The city may have owed its success to the goldsmiths. The earliest involvement of the Romans occurred in 75 BC when Gaius Scribonius Curio, prefect of Macedonia, entered this territory to ward off the Scordisci, the Dardani and the Daci. In 29 BC, Marcus Licinius Crassus, the grandson of the triumvir, fought the Triballi here. Ratiaria was a fortified city by this point. It was not until the principate of Augustus that the Romans conquered the region, which was organised into a province named Moesia. In 33/34 AD Tiberius built the road linking the Danube forts including Viminacium and Ratiaria. The city was certainly less important than the nearby Sirmium, Viminacium and Naissus, but its associated fortress located along the Danubian Limes made it a key legionary station. Legio IV Flavia Felix was based here at least until the conquest of Dacia (101-106 AD), together with the fleet of the Classis Moesica under Vespasian. After the division of Moesia in 86 AD, the city became the principal city of Upper Moesia. After the conquest of Dacia, the castrum was abandoned and the settlement became a colonia within Moesia Superior named Colonia Ulpia Traiana Ratiaria (107 AD) after its founder the Emperor Trajan. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Ratiaria became prosperous as a trade centre and customs port. A number of Roman patricians (aristocrats) lived in Ratiaria, while the nearby Bononia (today's Vidin) was home to a small military unit. With the definitive abandonment of Dacia Traiana by Aurelian in 271, the old castra in the region were reopened. It is unclear whether Aurelian or the Emperor Diocletian replaced Dacia Aureliana with two provinces, but by 285, there were two: – Dacia Mediterranea with its capital at Serdica and Dacia Ripensis with its capital at Ratiaria. As the capital of the new province Ratiaria served both as the seat of the military governor (or dux) and as the military base for the Roman legion XIII Gemina. Later these two “Dacias” along with Dardania, Moesia Inferior and Praevalitana constituted the Diocese of Dacia. An important bishop's cathedra was established in the town in the 4th century AD. The city became an important Christian centre in the 4th century and several bishops are recorded. Palladius of Ratiaria, an Arian Christian theologian, lived here in the late 4th century. In 440 or 441 the Huns sacked Ratiaria. Rebuilding works were done under Anastasius I, celebrated in the new town's name, Anastasiana Ratiaria. Priscus calls it a prosperous city in the 5th century. In AD 586 the town was sacked by the Avars. Archaeological excavations of the site began in 1958 and have continued sporadically since then.

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