Sites & cities that bear the name of Shenyang


Today in : China
First trace of activity : ca. 6,000 B.C.E
Last trace of activity : today
Recorded names : 侯城, Hóu Chéng, Hou City, ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝᠨ, Mukden, 奉天, Fengtian, 沈阳市, Shengjing, 盛京, Shèng Jīng

Description : Shenyang (Chinese: 沈阳), formerly known as Fengtian (Chinese: 奉天) or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Liaoning province. Located in central-north Liaoning, it is the province's most populous city, with a total metropolitan population up to 8.1 million. The Manchu people conquered Shenyang in the 17th century and briefly used it as the capital of Qing-dynasty China. The Battle of Mukden took place in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War. Japan's subsequent victory allowed Tokyo to annex the region west of the old city and to increase Japanese influence on Shenyang; in September 1931 the Mukden Incident led the Japanese to further invade and occupy the rest of Northeast China, forming the puppet state of Manchukuo. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold, but the Communists captured it in 1948 after the Liaoshen Campaign. Archaeological findings show that humans resided in present-day Shenyang as early as 8,000 years ago. The remains of the Xinle culture, a late neolithic period society over 6,800–7,200 years old, are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District. It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world. The city, now known as Shenyang, was first established in about 300 BCE during the Warring States period by Yan general Qin Kai, who conquered the Liaodong region, and was then named Hou City (侯城; Hóu Chéng). However, around 350 years later during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han, the city was sacked and burnt by the Donghu nomads and subsequently abandoned. The area of modern Shenyang was divided between two commanderies called Liaodong and Xuantu around 107 CE. Liaodong was seized by a Han governor in 189. Liaodong and Xuantu were briefly united under the Wei Dynasty and Jin Dynasty. The region was in disarray during the fourth century until the Koguryo occupied both commanderies in 404. They established the cities of Xuantucheng and Gaimoucheng in the region.The Sui dynasty recaptured the area and established a new Liaodong Commandery in what is now modern Shenyang. In 645, the Tang sent forces to fight against Koguryo and they captured Xuantucheng and Gaimoucheng. Soon after, Liaodong was administratively reorganized and enjoyed nearly 250 years of stability and development. In 916, the Shenyang region was ruled by the Liao dynasty and was known as the Shen Prefecture (瀋州; Shěn Zhōu) through to the end of Jin dynasty (who conquered the region in 1116), and became the Shenyang Circuit (瀋陽路; Shěnyáng Lù) during the Yuan dynasty. During the Ming dynasty, it was designated as a "guard town" (militarized settlements, such as walled/heavily garrisoned cities or towns) named Shenyang Central Guard (瀋陽中衛; Shěnyáng Zhōngwèi) and gradually became one of the most important strongholds beyond the Shanhai Pass.

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