Sites & cities that bear the name of Thérouanne


Today in : France
First trace of activity : ca. 1st century B.C.E
Last trace of activity : today
Recorded names : Civitas Morinum, Morenum, Morini, Morinum, Morenum, Morian Moriana, Moriane, Morinon, Terroane, Terewane, Thierowane, Teremiane, Théroaanne, Tervanna, Terwaan, Terenburg, Therwane, Tarenborch

Description : Thérouanne (Dutch: Terwaan; French Flemish Terenburg) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France. It is located 10 km (6.2 mi) west of Aire-sur-la-Lys and 13 km (8.1 mi) south of Saint-Omer, on the D 157 and D 341 road junction. Located on the river Lys. At the time of the Gauls, Tarwanna or Tervanna was the capital of the Belgian tribe of the Morini. After the Romans conquered Gaul, they too made the city the capital of the Civitas Morinorum district. The origin of the name has several theories. According to the historian Malbracq, it got its name from its founder "Lucius Tauruannus", others say it is derived from "Terra avanae" The land of Oats. But this second derivation seems to be a generic used term. In the 7th century, probably around 639, Saint Audomar (Saint Omer) established the bishopric of Terwaan or Terenburg, the diocese of Thérouanne, which during the Middle Ages controlled a large part of the left bank of the river Scheldt. Territorially it was part of the county of Artois which belonged to the county of Flanders. In 1303 the town was burnt by Flemish forces during the Franco-Flemish War. Thanks to that ecclesiastical control of some of the most prosperous cities north of the Alps, like Arras and Ypres, the bishopric was able to build a cathedral which was at the time the largest in France. The town was captured by the Emperor Maximilian and Henry VIII from the French in 1513 after the battle of the Spurs. In 1553 Charles V besieged Thérouanne, then a French enclave in the Holy Roman Empire, in revenge for a defeat by the French at the siege of Metz. After he captured the city he ordered it to be razed, the roads to be broken up, and the area to be ploughed and salted. Only a small commune which lay outside the city walls, then named Saint-Martin-Outre-Eaux, was left standing, and later (probably around 1800) took over the name Thérouanne. Part of the portal of the cathedral was acquired by Saint-Omer; a colossal statue of Christ is all that is left of it these days. The disappearance of the former bishopric led to a reform of sees at the Council of Trent, and the bishopric of Thérouanne was split between those of Saint-Omer and Ypres. Therouanne lies on the Via Francigena.

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